Tree In Ein einzigartiges Übernachtungserlebnis in der Höhe
Wir sind ein Baumhaushotel direkt im Wolfcenter Dörverden. Von unseren 5m hohen Baumhäusern kann man Wölfe in Ihren Gehegen erleben. Unsere. Das luxuriöse Abenteuer in 5 und 8 m Höhe und ein unvergessliches Erlebnis in Mitten von Wölfen. Die Räumlichkeiten unserer zwei Baumhaushotels sind voll. Das Tree Inn - Das Baumhaushotel liegt in Dörverden und bietet 4 Unterkünfte mit eigener Terrasse. scenes of dancing by the sacred tree. It may, on the other hand, be a condhshell, but the drum is more commonly associated with tree and bird. If it is a drum. Startseite von tree of life Baumbestattungen. Wir begrüßen Sie recht herzlich auf unseren Seiten. Wir wollen Ihnen Mut machen, sich mit einer zukünftigen.
Startseite von tree of life Baumbestattungen. Wir begrüßen Sie recht herzlich auf unseren Seiten. Wir wollen Ihnen Mut machen, sich mit einer zukünftigen. TRGOVINA TREE in TREE'S. | Worldwide shipping | Stari trg 11a • Mestni trg 10,Ljubljana | • Tree of Life ist ein modernes Vier-Sterne-Resort in der Kleinstadt Lázně Bělohrad. Gönnen Sie sich ein Erlebnis aus der Kombination der reichen Tradition, der. Marietta College. Trees play a significant well Wann Bekommt Man Einen Blauen Brief opinion in reducing erosion and moderating the climate. In their natural habitats, different species Brainy insect have been found on the English oak Quercus robur  and species of invertebrate on the Tasmanian oak Eucalyptus obliqua. There are a few different methods  of shaping a tree. Above ground, the trunk gives height to the leaf-bearing branches, competing with other plant species for sunlight. Latex is a sticky defensive secretion that protects plants against herbivores.
However, this is not always true. The roots of the mangrove tree are often under water. A single tree has many roots. The roots carry nutrients and water from the ground through the trunk and branches to the leaves of the tree.
They can also breathe in air. Sometimes, roots are specialized into aerial roots , which can also provide support, as is the case with the banyan tree.
The trunk is the main body of the tree. The trunk is covered with bark which protects it from damage.
Branches grow from the trunk. They spread out so that the leaves can get more sunlight. The leaves of a tree are green most of the time, but they can come in many colors, shapes and sizes.
The leaves take in sunlight and use water and food from the roots to make the tree grow, and to reproduce. Trees and shrubs take in water and carbon dioxide and give out oxygen with sunlight to form sugars.
This is the opposite of what animals do in respiration. Plants also do some respiration using oxygen the way animals do. They need oxygen as well as carbon dioxide to live.
Trees are renewable resources because, if cut down, other trees can grow in their place. The parts of a tree are the roots , trunk s , branches , twigs and leaves.
Tree stems are mainly made of support and transport tissues xylem and phloem. Wood consists of xylem cells, and bark is made of phloem and other tissues external to the vascular cambium.
As a tree grows, it may produce growth rings as new wood is laid down around the old wood. In areas with seasonal climate, wood produced at different times of the year may alternate light and dark rings.
In temperate climates, and tropical climates with a single wet-dry season alternation, the growth rings are annual, each pair of light and dark rings being one year of growth.
In areas with two wet and dry seasons each year, there may be two pairs of light and dark rings each year; and in some mainly semi-desert regions with irregular rainfall , there may be a new growth ring with each rainfall.
In tropical rainforest regions, with constant year-round climate, growth is continuous. Growth rings are not visible and there is no change in the wood texture.
In species with annual rings, these rings can be counted to find the age of the tree. This way, wood taken from trees in the past can be dated, because the patterns of ring thickness are very distinctive.
This is dendrochronology. Very few tropical trees can be accurately dated in this manner. The roots of a tree are almost always underground, usually in a ball shaped region centered under the trunk, and extending no deeper than the tree is high.
Roots can also be above ground, or deep underground. Some roots are short, some are meters long. Roots provide support for the parts above ground, holding the tree upright, and keeping it from falling over in high wind.
Roots take in water , and nutrients , from the soil. Without help from fungus for better uptake of nutrients, trees would be small or would die.
Most trees have a favorite species of fungus that they associate with for this purpose. Above ground, the trunk gives height to the leaf-bearing branches, competing with other plant species for sunlight.
In all trees the shape of the branches improves the exposure of the leaves to sunlight. Branches start at the trunk, big and thick, and get progressively smaller the farther they grow from the trunk.
Branches themselves split into smaller branches, sometime very many times, until at the end they are quite small. The small ends are called twigs.
The leaves of a tree are held by the branches. Leaves are usually held at the ends of the branches. The, although some have leaves along the branches.
The main functions of leaves are photosynthesis and gas exchange. A leaf is often flat, so it absorbs the most light, and thin, so that the sunlight can get to the green parts in the cells, which convert sunlight, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere , and water from the roots, into glucose and oxygen.
Most of a tree's biomass comes from this process. Most leaves have stomata , which open and close, and regulate carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapour exchange with the atmosphere.
Trees with leaves all year round are evergreens , and those that shed their leaves are deciduous. Deciduous trees and shrubs generally lose their leaves in autumn as it gets cold.
Before this happens, the leaves change colour. The leaves will grow back in spring. The word "tree" in English means a long lived plant having obvious main stem, and growing to a considerable height and size.
Thus not all trees have all the organs or parts as mentioned above. For example, most tree-like palms are not branched, and tree ferns do not produce bark.
There are also more exceptions. Based on their general shape and size, all of these are nonetheless generally regarded as trees.
Trees can vary a lot. A plant that is similar to a tree, but generally smaller, and may have multiple trunks, or have branches that arise near the ground, is called a " shrub ", or a "bush".
Since these are common English words there is no precise differentiation between shrubs and trees. Given their small size, bonsai plants would not technically be "trees", but are indeed "trees".
Do not confuse the use of tree for a species of plant, with the size or shape of individual specimens.
A spruce seedling does not fit the definition of a tree, but all spruces are trees. A tree is a plant form that can be found in many different orders and families of plants.
Trees show many growth forms , leaf type and shape, bark traits and organs. The tree form has changed separately in classes of plants that are not related, in response to similar problems for the tree.
With about , types of trees, the number of tree types in the whole world might be one fourth of all living plant types.
The earliest trees were tree ferns , horsetails and lycophytes , which grew in forests in the Carboniferous period; tree ferns still survive, but the only surviving horsetails and lycophytes are not of tree form.
Later, in the Triassic Period, conifers , ginkgos , cycads and other gymnosperms appeared, and subsequently flowering plants in the Cretaceous period.
Most species of trees today are flowering plants Angiosperms and conifers. A small group of trees growing together is called a grove or copse , and a landscape covered by a dense growth of trees is called a forest.
Several biotopes are defined largely by the trees that inhabit them; examples are rainforest and taiga see ecozones.
A landscape of trees scattered or spaced across grassland usually grazed or burned over periodically is called a savanna. A forest of great age is called old growth forest or ancient woodland in the UK.
A very young tree is called a sapling. Scientists in the UK and Malaysia say they have discovered the world's tallest tropical tree measuring more than m ft high.
A coast redwood : The tallest trees in Australia are all eucalypts , of which there are more than species.
The so-called 'mountain ash'. The stoutest living single-trunk species in diameter is the African baobab : Some trees develop multiple trunks whether from an individual tree or multiple trees which grow together.
The sacred fig is a notable example of this, forming additional 'trunks' by growing adventitious roots down from the branches, which then thicken up when the root reaches the ground to form new trunks; a single sacred fig tree can have hundreds of such trunks.
The life-span of trees is determined by growth rings. These can be seen if the tree is cut down or in cores taken from the edge to the center of the tree.
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Save Word. Log In. Tree biographical name. Sir Herbert Draper Beerbohm — English actor-manager.
Keep scrolling for more. Examples of tree in a Sentence Noun He chopped down the tree. First Known Use of tree Noun before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a Verb , in the meaning defined at sense 1a.
Learn More about tree. Time Traveler for tree The first known use of tree was before the 12th century See more words from the same century.
Phrases Related to tree grow on trees miss the forest for the trees not see the forest for the trees not see the wood for the trees olive tree out of one's tree palm tree.
More Definitions for tree. English Language Learners Definition of tree. Comments on tree What made you want to look up tree?
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The condition says that inverse consecutivity of arrows [c] is a total child-to-parent map. Let this parent map between arrows be denoted p , i.
Observe that the root arrow is necessarily a loop, i. An important generalization of the above structure is established by allowing the target map t to be many-to-one.
This means that 2 is weakened to. Note that condition 1 asserts that only leaf arrows are allowed to have the same target.
That is, the restriction of t to the range of p is still injective. Multidigraphs satisfying 1,2' can be called arrow trees — their tree characteristics is imposed on arrows rather than nodes.
These structures can be regarded as the most essential abstraction of the Linux VFS because they reflect the hard-link structure of filesystems.
Nodes are called inodes , arrows are dentries or hard links. Using dashed style for the first half of the root loop indicates that, similarly to the parent map, there is a partial version for the source map s in which the source of the root arrow is undefined.
This variant is employed for further generalization, see Using paths in a multidigraph. Unordered trees naturally arise by "unfolding" of accessible pointed graphs.
The root element is obviously r'. Moreover, the following properties are satisfied:. As shown on the example of hard-link structure of file systems, many data structures in computing allow multiple links between nodes.
Therefore, in order to properly exhibit the appearance of unordered trees among data structures it is necessary to generalize accessible pointed graphs to multidigraph setting.
To simplify the terminology, we make use of the term quiver which is an established synonym for multidigraph. Path algebra. Like with apgs, unfolding is idempotent and always results in a tree.
There are two prominent examples of naming systems: file systems and nested associative arrays. The multidigraph-based structures from previous subsections provided anonymous abstractions for both cases.
To obtain naming capabilities, arrows are to be equipped with names as identifiers. A name must be locally unique — within each sibling set of arrows [e] there can be at most one arrow labelled by a given name.
The structure is subject to the following conditions. This structure can be called a nested dictionary or named apq. In computing, such structures are ubiquitous.
This structure, depicted by full lines, is an arrow tree therefore, it is a spanning tree. Subsequently, the remaining arrows are created by assignments of already existing nodes.
Arrows that cause cycles are displayed in blue. In both cases, there is a fixed set of built-in types of nodes of which one type is a container type, except that in JSON, there are in fact two such types — Object and Array.
In particular, the root-originating arrow paths are in one-to-one correspondence with their pathnames. The structures introduced in the previous subsection form just the core "hierarchical" part of tree data structures that appear in computing.
In most cases, there is also an additional "horizontal" ordering between siblings. In search trees the order is commonly established by the "key" or value associated with each sibling, but in many trees that is not the case.
For example, XML documents, lists within JSON files, and many other structures have order that does not depend on the values in the nodes, but is itself data — sorting the paragraphs of a novel alphabetically would lose information.
Given this, there are three another distinguished partial orders which are uniquely given by the following prescriptions:.
For the simplest example, consider an ordered tree with exactly two nodes — then one cannot tell which of them is the root. The table on the right shows a correspondence of introduced relations to XPath axes , which are used in structured document systems to access nodes that bear particular ordering relationships to a starting "context" node.
As of XPath 2. Below is the list of partial maps that are typically used for ordered tree traversal. The traversal maps constitute a partial unary algebra  X , parent , previousSibling , This also applies to unordered trees in general, which can be observed on the dentry data structure in the Linux VFS.
Another important generating structure is X , firstChild , nextSibling known as left-child right-sibling binary tree. This partial algebra establishes a one-to-one correspondence between binary trees and ordered trees.
The correspondence to binary trees provides a concise definition of ordered trees as partial algebras.
Ordered trees can be naturally encoded by finite sequences of natural numbers. This yields a partition of the set of nodes into levels L 0 , L 1 , There is a distinction between a tree as an abstract data type and as a concrete data structure, analogous to the distinction between a list and a linked list.
As a data type, a tree has a value and children, and the children are themselves trees; the value and children of the tree are interpreted as the value of the root node and the subtrees of the children of the root node.
To allow finite trees, one must either allow the list of children to be empty in which case trees can be required to be non-empty, an "empty tree" instead being represented by a forest of zero trees , or allow trees to be empty, in which case the list of children can be of fixed size branching factor , especially 2 or "binary" , if desired.
As a data structure, a linked tree is a group of nodes , where each node has a value and a list of references to other nodes its children.
There is also the requirement that no two "downward" references point to the same node. Due to the use of references to trees in the linked tree data structure, trees are often discussed implicitly assuming that they are being represented by references to the root node, as this is often how they are actually implemented.
For example, rather than an empty tree, one may have a null reference: a tree is always non-empty, but a reference to a tree may be null.
Recursively, as a data type a tree is defined as a value of some data type, possibly empty , together with a list of trees possibly an empty list , the subtrees of its children; symbolically:.
A tree t consists of a value v and a list of other trees. More elegantly, via mutual recursion , of which a tree is one of the most basic examples, a tree can be defined in terms of forest a list of trees , where a tree consists of a value and a forest the subtrees of its children :.
Note that this definition is in terms of values, and is appropriate in functional languages it assumes referential transparency ; different trees have no connections, as they are simply lists of values.
As a data structure, a tree is defined as a node the root , which itself consists of a value of some data type, possibly empty , together with a list of references to other nodes list possibly empty, references possibly null ; symbolically:.
A node n consists of a value v and a list of references to other nodes. This data structure defines a directed graph, [j] and for it to be a tree one must add a condition on its global structure its topology , namely that at most one reference can point to any given node a node has at most a single parent , and no node in the tree point to the root.
In fact, every node other than the root must have exactly one parent, and the root must have no parents. Indeed, given a list of nodes, and for each node a list of references to its children, one cannot tell if this structure is a tree or not without analyzing its global structure and that it is in fact topologically a tree, as defined below.
As an ADT , the abstract tree type T with values of some type E is defined, using the abstract forest type F list of trees , by the functions:.
In terms of type theory , a tree is an inductive type defined by the constructors nil empty forest and node tree with root node with given value and children.
Viewed as a whole, a tree data structure is an ordered tree , generally with values attached to each node.
Concretely, it is if required to be non-empty :. Often trees have a fixed more properly, bounded branching factor outdegree , particularly always having two child nodes possibly empty, hence at most two non-empty child nodes , hence a "binary tree".
Allowing empty trees makes some definitions simpler, some more complicated: a rooted tree must be non-empty, hence if empty trees are allowed the above definition instead becomes "an empty tree or a rooted tree such that On the other hand, empty trees simplify defining fixed branching factor: with empty trees allowed, a binary tree is a tree such that every node has exactly two children, each of which is a tree possibly empty.
The complete sets of operations on the tree must include fork operation. A node is a structure which may contain a value or condition, or represent a separate data structure which could be a tree of its own.
Each node in a tree has zero or more child nodes , which are below it in the tree by convention, trees are drawn growing downwards.
A node that has a child is called the child's parent node or ancestor node , or superior. A node has at most one parent. An internal node also known as an inner node , inode for short, or branch node is any node of a tree that has child nodes.
Similarly, an external node also known as an outer node , leaf node , or terminal node is any node that does not have child nodes.
The topmost node in a tree is called the root node. Depending on definition, a tree may be required to have a root node in which case all trees are non-empty , or may be allowed to be empty, in which case it does not necessarily have a root node.
Being the topmost node, the root node will not have a parent. It is the node at which algorithms on the tree begin, since as a data structure, one can only pass from parents to children.
Note that some algorithms such as post-order depth-first search begin at the root, but first visit leaf nodes access the value of leaf nodes , only visit the root last i.
All other nodes can be reached from it by following edges or links. In the formal definition, each such path is also unique.
In diagrams, the root node is conventionally drawn at the top. In some trees, such as heaps , the root node has special properties.
Every node in a tree can be seen as the root node of the subtree rooted at that node. The height of a node is the length of the longest downward path to a leaf from that node.
The height of the root is the height of the tree. The depth of a node is the length of the path to its root i.
This is commonly needed in the manipulation of the various self-balancing trees, AVL Trees in particular.
The root node has depth zero, leaf nodes have height zero, and a tree with only a single node hence both a root and leaf has depth and height zero.
A subtree of a tree T is a tree consisting of a node in T and all of its descendants in T. Trees are often drawn in the plane.
Ordered trees can be represented essentially uniquely in the plane, and are hence called plane trees, as follows: if one fixes a conventional order say, counterclockwise , and arranges the child nodes in that order first incoming parent edge, then first child edge, etc.
Conversely, such an embedding determines an ordering of the child nodes. If one places the root at the top parents above children, as in a family tree and places all nodes that are a given distance from the root in terms of number of edges: the "level" of a tree on a given horizontal line, one obtains a standard drawing of the tree.
Given a binary tree, the first child is on the left the "left node" , and the second child is on the right the "right node". There are many different ways to represent trees; common representations represent the nodes as dynamically allocated records with pointers to their children, their parents, or both, or as items in an array , with relationships between them determined by their positions in the array e.
Indeed, a binary tree can be implemented as a list of lists a list where the values are lists : the head of a list the value of the first term is the left child subtree , while the tail the list of second and subsequent terms is the right child subtree.
This can be modified to allow values as well, as in Lisp S-expressions , where the head value of first term is the value of the node, the head of the tail value of second term is the left child, and the tail of the tail list of third and subsequent terms is the right child.
In general a node in a tree will not have pointers to its parents, but this information can be included expanding the data structure to also include a pointer to the parent or stored separately.
Alternatively, upward links can be included in the child node data, as in a threaded binary tree. If edges to child nodes are thought of as references, then a tree is a special case of a digraph, and the tree data structure can be generalized to represent directed graphs by removing the constraints that a node may have at most one parent, and that no cycles are allowed.
Edges are still abstractly considered as pairs of nodes, however, the terms parent and child are usually replaced by different terminology for example, source and target.
Different implementation strategies exist: a digraph can be represented by the same local data structure as a tree node with value and list of children , assuming that "list of children" is a list of references, or globally by such structures as adjacency lists.
In graph theory , a tree is a connected acyclic graph ; unless stated otherwise, in graph theory trees and graphs are assumed undirected.
There is no one-to-one correspondence between such trees and trees as data structure. Others rely on animals, for example with edible fruits.
Others again eject their seeds ballistic dispersal , or use gravity so that seeds fall and sometimes roll.
Seeds are the primary way that trees reproduce and their seeds vary greatly in size and shape. Some of the largest seeds come from trees, but the largest tree, Sequoiadendron giganteum , produces one of the smallest tree seeds.
For a tree seedling to grow into an adult tree it needs light. If seeds only fell straight to the ground, competition among the concentrated saplings and the shade of the parent would likely prevent it from flourishing.
Many seeds such as birch are small and have papery wings to aid dispersal by the wind. Ash trees and maples have larger seeds with blade shaped wings which spiral down to the ground when released.
The kapok tree has cottony threads to catch the breeze. The seeds of conifers, the largest group of gymnosperms, are enclosed in a cone and most species have seeds that are light and papery that can be blown considerable distances once free from the cone.
Fire stimulates release and germination of seeds of the jack pine , and also enriches the forest floor with wood ash and removes competing vegetation.
The flame tree Delonix regia does not rely on fire but shoots its seeds through the air when the two sides of its long pods crack apart explosively on drying.
Mangroves often grow in water and some species have propagules , which are buoyant fruits with seeds that start germinating before becoming detached from the parent tree.
Other seeds, such as apple pips and plum stones, have fleshy receptacles and smaller fruits like hawthorns have seeds enclosed in edible tissue; animals including mammals and birds eat the fruits and either discard the seeds, or swallow them so they pass through the gut to be deposited in the animal's droppings well away from the parent tree.
The germination of some seeds is improved when they are processed in this way. The single extant species of Ginkgophyta Ginkgo biloba has fleshy seeds produced at the ends of short branches on female trees,  and Gnetum , a tropical and subtropical group of gymnosperms produce seeds at the tip of a shoot axis.
The earliest trees were tree ferns , horsetails and lycophytes , which grew in forests in the Carboniferous period.
The first tree may have been Wattieza , fossils of which have been found in New York State in dating back to the Middle Devonian about million years ago.
Prior to this discovery, Archaeopteris was the earliest known tree. The gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, gnetales and ginkgos and these may have appeared as a result of a whole genome duplication event which took place about million years ago.
This is considered to be a living fossil because it is virtually unchanged from the fossilised specimens found in Triassic deposits.
During the Mesozoic to 66 million years ago the conifers flourished and became adapted to live in all the major terrestrial habitats.
Subsequently, the tree forms of flowering plants evolved during the Cretaceous period. These began to displace the conifers during the Tertiary era 66 to 2 million years ago when forests covered the globe.
In the interglacials , trees recolonised the land that had been covered by ice, only to be driven back again in the next ice age.
Trees are an important part of the terrestrial ecosystem ,  providing essential habitats including many kinds of forest for communities of organisms.
Epiphytic plants such as ferns , some mosses, liverworts, orchids and some species of parasitic plants e. Leaves, flowers and fruits are seasonally available.
On the ground underneath trees there is shade, and often there is undergrowth, leaf litter, and decaying wood that provide other habitat.
Many species of tree support their own specialised invertebrates. In their natural habitats, different species of insect have been found on the English oak Quercus robur  and species of invertebrate on the Tasmanian oak Eucalyptus obliqua.
In ecosystems such as mangrove swamps, trees play a role in developing the habitat, since the roots of the mangrove trees reduce the speed of flow of tidal currents and trap water-borne sediment, reducing the water depth and creating suitable conditions for further mangrove colonisation.
Thus mangrove swamps tend to extend seawards in suitable locations. Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests, which are areas that have a high density of trees.
Cultivated trees are planted and tended by humans, usually because they provide food fruits or nuts , ornamental beauty, or some type of wood product that benefits people.
An area of land planted with fruit or nut trees is an orchard. Trees are the source of many of the world's best known fleshy fruits.
Apples, pears, plums, cherries and citrus are all grown commercially in temperate climates and a wide range of edible fruits are found in the tropics.
Other commercially important fruit include dates, figs and olives. Palm oil is obtained from the fruits of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis.
The fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao are used to make cocoa and chocolate and the berries of coffee trees, Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora , are processed to extract the coffee beans.
In many rural areas of the world, fruit is gathered from forest trees for consumption. These include coconuts Cocos nucifera , Brazil nuts Bertholletia excelsa , pecans Carya illinoinensis , hazel nuts Corylus , almonds Prunus dulcis , walnuts Juglans regia , pistachios Pistacia vera and many others.
They are high in nutritive value and contain high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals as well as dietary fibre.
In temperate climates there is a sudden movement of sap at the end of the winter as trees prepare to burst into growth.
In North America, the sap of the sugar maple Acer saccharum is most often used in the production of a sweet liquid, maple syrup.
The sap is harvested by drilling holes in the trunks of the trees and collecting the liquid that flows out of the inserted spigots. It is piped to a sugarhouse where it is heated to concentrate it and improve its flavour.
Similarly in northern Europe the spring rise in the sap of the silver birch Betula pendula is tapped and collected, either to be drunk fresh or fermented into an alcoholic drink.
Sweet birch sap is more dilute than maple sap; a hundred litres are required to make one litre of birch syrup. Various parts of trees are used as spices.
These include cinnamon , made from the bark of the cinnamon tree Cinnamomum zeylanicum and allspice , the dried small fruits of the pimento tree Pimenta dioica.
Nutmeg is a seed found in the fleshy fruit of the nutmeg tree Myristica fragrans and cloves are the unopened flower buds of the clove tree Syzygium aromaticum.
Many trees have flowers rich in nectar which are attractive to bees. The production of forest honey is an important industry in rural areas of the developing world where it is undertaken by small-scale beekeepers using traditional methods.
The leaves of trees are widely gathered as fodder for livestock and some can be eaten by humans but they tend to be high in tannins which makes them bitter.
Wood smoke can be used to preserve food. In the hot smoking process the food is exposed to smoke and heat in a controlled environment.
The food is ready to eat when the process is complete, having been tenderised and flavoured by the smoke it has absorbed.
The flavour of the food is enhanced but raw food requires further cooking. If it is to be preserved, meat should be cured before cold smoking.
Wood has traditionally been used for fuel, especially in rural areas. In less developed nations it may be the only fuel available and collecting firewood is often a time consuming task as it becomes necessary to travel further and further afield in the search for fuel.
In more developed countries other fuels are available and burning wood is a choice rather than a necessity. Modern wood-burning stoves are very fuel efficient and new products such as wood pellets are available to burn.
Charcoal can be made by slow pyrolysis of wood by heating it in the absence of air in a kiln. The carefully stacked branches, often oak, are burned with a very limited amount of air.
The process of converting them into charcoal takes about fifteen hours. Charcoal is used as a fuel in barbecues and by blacksmiths and has many industrial and other uses.
Timber, "trees that are grown in order to produce wood"  is cut into lumber sawn wood for use in construction.
Wood has been an important, easily available material for construction since humans started building shelters. Engineered wood products are available which bind the particles, fibres or veneers of wood together with adhesives to form composite materials.
Plastics have taken over from wood for some traditional uses. Wood is used in the construction of buildings, bridges, trackways, piles, poles for power lines, masts for boats, pit props, railway sleepers, fencing, hurdles, shuttering for concrete, pipes, scaffolding and pallets.
In housebuilding it is used in joinery, for making joists, roof trusses, roofing shingles, thatching, staircases, doors, window frames, floor boards, parquet flooring, panelling and cladding.
Wood is used to construct carts, farm implements, boats, dugout canoes and in shipbuilding. It is used for making furniture, tool handles, boxes, ladders, musical instruments, bows, weapons, matches, clothes pegs, brooms, shoes, baskets, turnery, carving, toys, pencils, rollers, cogs, wooden screws, barrels, coffins, skittles, veneers, artificial limbs, oars, skis, wooden spoons, sports equipment and wooden balls.
Wood is pulped for paper and used in the manufacture of cardboard and made into engineered wood products for use in construction such as fibreboard , hardboard , chipboard and plywood.
Besides inspiring artists down the centuries, trees have been used to create art. Living trees have been used in bonsai and in tree shaping , and both living and dead specimens have been sculpted into sometimes fantastic shapes.
The word bonsai is often used in English as an umbrella term for all miniature trees in containers or pots. The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation for the viewer and the pleasant exercise of effort and ingenuity for the grower.
Bonsai can be created from nearly any perennial woody-stemmed tree or shrub species  that produces true branches and can be cultivated to remain small through pot confinement with crown and root pruning.
Some species are popular as bonsai material because they have characteristics, such as small leaves or needles, that make them appropriate for the compact visual scope of bonsai and a miniature deciduous forest can even be created using such species as Japanese maple , Japanese zelkova or hornbeam.
Tree shaping is the practice of changing living trees and other woody plants into man made shapes for art and useful structures.
There are a few different methods  of shaping a tree. There is a gradual method and there is an instant method. Tree shaping has been practised for at least several hundred years, the oldest known examples being the living root bridges built and maintained by the Khasi people of Meghalaya , India using the roots of the rubber tree Ficus elastica.
Cork is produced from the thick bark of the cork oak Quercus suber. It is harvested from the living trees about once every ten years in an environmentally sustainable industry.
The bark of other varieties of oak has traditionally been used in Europe for the tanning of hides though bark from other species of tree has been used elsewhere.
The active ingredient, tannin , is extracted and after various preliminary treatments, the skins are immersed in a series of vats containing solutions in increasing concentrations.
The tannin causes the hide to become supple, less affected by water and more resistant to bacterial attack. At least drugs come from plant sources , many of them from the bark of trees.
The papery bark of the white birch tree Betula papyrifera was used extensively by Native Americans. Wigwams were covered by it and canoes were constructed from it.
Other uses included food containers, hunting and fishing equipment, musical instruments, toys and sledges.
Trees create a visual impact in the same way as do other landscape features and give a sense of maturity and permanence to park and garden.
They are grown for the beauty of their forms, their foliage, flowers, fruit and bark and their siting is of major importance in creating a landscape.
They can be grouped informally, often surrounded by plantings of bulbs, laid out in stately avenues or used as specimen trees.
As living things, their appearance changes with the season and from year to year. Trees are often planted in town environments where they are known as street trees or amenity trees.
They can provide shade and cooling through evapotranspiration , absorb greenhouse gases and pollutants, intercept rainfall, and reduce the risk of flooding.
Scientific studies show that street trees help cities be more sustainable, and improve the physical and mental wellbeing of the citizens.
Many towns have initiated tree-planting programmes. Latex is a sticky defensive secretion that protects plants against herbivores.
Originally used to create bouncy balls and for the waterproofing of cloth, natural rubber is now mainly used in tyres for which synthetic materials have proved less durable.
This is also used as an insulator, particularly of undersea cables, and in dentistry, walking sticks and gun butts.
It has now largely been replaced by synthetic materials. Resin is another plant exudate that may have a defensive purpose.
It is a viscous liquid composed mainly of volatile terpenes and is produced mostly by coniferous trees. It is used in varnishes, for making small castings and in ten-pin bowling balls.
When heated, the terpenes are driven off and the remaining product is called "rosin" and is used by stringed instrumentalists on their bows.
Some resins contain essential oils and are used in incense and aromatherapy. Fossilised resin is known as amber and was mostly formed in the Cretaceous to 66 million years ago or more recently.
The resin that oozed out of trees sometimes trapped insects or spiders and these are still visible in the interior of the amber.
The camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora produces an essential oil  and the eucalyptus tree Eucalyptus globulus is the main source of eucalyptus oil which is used in medicine, as a fragrance and in industry.
Dead trees pose a safety risk, especially during high winds and severe storms, and removing dead trees involves a financial burden, whereas the presence of healthy trees can clean the air, increase property values, and reduce the temperature of the built environment and thereby reduce building cooling costs.
During times of drought, trees can fall into water stress , which may cause a tree to become more susceptible to disease and insect problems, and ultimately may lead to a tree's death.
Irrigating trees during dry periods can reduce the risk of water stress and death. Trees have been venerated since time immemorial.
To the ancient Celts , certain trees, especially the oak , ash and thorn , held special significance  as providing fuel, building materials, ornamental objects and weaponry.
Other cultures have similarly revered trees, often linking the lives and fortunes of individuals to them or using them as oracles.
In Greek mythology , dryads were believed to be shy nymphs who inhabited trees. The Oubangui people of west Africa plant a tree when a child is born.
As the tree flourishes, so does the child but if the tree fails to thrive, the health of the child is considered at risk.
When it flowers it is time for marriage. Gifts are left at the tree periodically and when the individual dies, their spirit is believed to live on in the tree.
Trees have their roots in the ground and their trunk and branches extended towards the sky. This concept is found in many of the world's religions as a tree which links the underworld and the earth and holds up the heavens.
In Norse mythology , Yggdrasil is a central cosmic tree whose roots and branches extend to various worlds. Various creatures live on it.
Icons are placed beneath it to be worshipped, tree nymphs inhabit the branches and it grants favours to the devout who tie threads round the trunk.
Sacred groves exist in China, India, Africa and elsewhere. They are places where the deities live and where all the living things are either sacred or are companions of the gods.
Folklore lays down the supernatural penalties that will result if desecration takes place for example by the felling of trees.
Because of their protected status, sacred groves may be the only relicts of ancient forest and have a biodiversity much greater than the surrounding area.
It has been named Hyperion and is The oldest living tree with a verified age is also in California. It has been dated by drilling a core sample and counting the annual rings.
It is estimated to currently be 5, years old. A little farther south, at Santa Maria del Tule , Oaxaca , Mexico, is the tree with the broadest trunk.
The tree's trunk is far from round and the exact dimensions may be misleading as the circumference includes much empty space between the large buttress roots.
Wohlleben, Peter ; Flannery, Tim F. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Perennial woody plant with elongated trunk. For other uses, see Tree disambiguation.
Further information: Forest. Main article: Root. Main article: Trunk botany. Main article: Bud. Main article: Leaf. Further information: Plant reproduction , Pollination , and Seed dispersal.
Main article: Seed. Further information: Evolutionary history of plants. Further information: nut fruit and fruit. Main article: Wood fuel.
Main articles: Wood and Timber. Main article: Bonsai. Main article: Tree shaping. Further information: Bark botany. Main article: Ornamental trees.
Further information: Resin , Latex , and Camphor. Main article: Tree worship. Main article: List of superlative trees. Arboretum da Vinci branching rule Dendrology Dendrometry Exploding tree Fruit tree Multipurpose tree — a tree grown and managed for more than one output Tree climbing Tree house List of lists of trees.
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