Crime Scene Investigation

Crime Scene Investigation Das Unternehmen

Als Crime Scene Investigation (kurz CSI) bezeichnet man die US-amerikanische und kanadische Spurensicherung. Auch wird der Begriff CSU (Crime Scene. Many translated example sentences containing "crime scene investigation" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. drvarner.co - Kaufen Sie CSI: Crime Scene Investigation - Season 12 günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen. Online-Shopping mit großer Auswahl im DVD & Blu-ray Shop. drvarner.co - Compra CSI: Crime Scene Investigation - Season a un gran precio, con posibilidad de envío gratis. Ver opiniones y detalles sobre la gran.

Crime Scene Investigation

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Crime Scene Investigation Video

As forensic evidence experts, CSIs often work closely with attorneys to provide comprehensive testimonies at criminal trials about the evidence collected at crime scenes.

The results of their analysis may help solve crimes, prosecute offenders, and release the wrongly accused.

Ever wonder how to become a crime scene investigator? Many people think that all CSIs are police officers, but many CSIs come from other backgrounds, such as science or criminology.

CSI candidates must meet the minimum requirements of the agency to which they are applying. CSIs typically need a bachelor's degree in either a natural or forensic science, such as chemistry or biology, or in a field such as criminal justice, crime scene technology, or criminology.

Some CSI positions do not require a baccalaureate degree, instead requiring specific college courses.

For instance, some jobs may accept applicants who have completed lab-based chemistry courses from an accredited college or university.

Most agencies require at least a high school diploma or GED and a valid driver's license. Some positions require applicants to be between the ages of 21 and 37 years old.

Depending on the role, CSIs may need one or more years of work experience in a related role, such as law enforcement officer or fingerprint technician.

Crime scene investigators and forensic science technicians typically receive on-the-job training. Many law enforcement agencies require new CSIs to complete extensive training programs before they take on cases independently.

Newly hired crime scene investigators may work under experienced investigators for up to one year. Training typically explores proper procedures for collecting and documenting evidence, photography, fingerprint processing, death scene processing, and blood spatter analysis.

Additionally, investigators and technicians must keep up with continuing education throughout their career to stay abreast of the current trends and advancements in science and technology.

As scientists continue to invent new methods and equipment for evidence collection, CSIs may need to pass regular proficiency exams to demonstrate their understanding of the latest tools and techniques.

Standards and credentials for investigators vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, so there are no common licensure requirements to become a CSI.

However, professional organizations such as the International Association for Identification and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences offer various courses and certifications that can help CSIs advance their careers.

These courses may cover topics like bloodstain pattern analysis, firearm identification, and latent fingerprinting.

In addition to a strong background in science and criminal justice, crime scene investigators need several soft skills, such as attention to detail, which helps them search for and find key evidence at various crime scenes.

They also need critical thinking skills and superior judgment in order to recognize which materials may assist in solving crimes.

Additionally, CSIs need strong written and verbal communication skills to prepare documentation and share key findings with others.

Since they are responsible for testifying at trials, they must be able to draw conclusions and render opinions with a strong degree of professionalism.

CSIs must be flexible and willing to work variable hours in potentially stressful or unpleasant conditions.

As CSIs are often considered "on call," they may be expected to have hour availability to respond to crime scenes. In this article, we'll examine what really goes on when a CSI "processes a crime scene" and get a real-world view of crime scene investigation from a primary scene responder with the Colorado Bureau of Investigation.

There is no typical crime scene, there is no typical body of evidence and there is no typical investigative approach. At any given crime scene, a CSI might collect dried blood from a windowpane — without letting his arm brush the glass in case there are any latent fingerprints there, lift hair off a victim's jacket using tweezers so he doesn't disturb the fabric enough to shake off any of the white powder which may or may not be cocaine in the folds of the sleeve, and use a sledge hammer to break through a wall that seems to be the point of origin for a terrible smell.

All the while, the physical evidence itself is only part of the equation. The ultimate goal is the conviction of the perpetrator of the crime.

So while the CSI scrapes off the dried blood without smearing any prints, lifts several hairs without disturbing any trace evidence and smashes through a wall in the living room, he's considering all of the necessary steps to preserve the evidence in its current form, what the lab can do with this evidence in order to reconstruct the crime or identify the criminal, and the legal issues involved in making sure this evidence is admissible in court.

The investigation of a crime scene begins when the CSI unit receives a call from the police officers or detectives on the scene.

The overall system works something like this:. Every CSI unit handles the division between field work and lab work differently.

What goes on at the crime scene is called crime scene investigation or crime scene analysis , and what goes on in the laboratory is called forensic science.

Not all CSIs are forensic scientists. Some CSIs only work in the field — they collect the evidence and then pass it to the forensics lab.

In this case, the CSI must still possess a good understanding of forensic science in order to recognize the specific value of various types of evidence in the field.

But in many cases, these jobs overlap. He has 14 years of field experience and also is an expert in certain areas of forensic science.

Crime scene investigation is a massive undertaking. Let's start at the beginning: scene recognition. The goal of the scene recognition stage is to gain an understanding of what this particular investigation will entail and develop a systematic approach to finding and collecting evidence.

At this point, the CSI is only using his eyes , ears , nose, some paper and a pen. The first step is to define the extent of the crime scene.

If the crime is a homicide, and there is a single victim who was killed in his home, the crime scene might be the house and the immediate vicinity outside.

Does it also include any cars in the driveway? Is there a blood trail down the street? If so, the crime scene might be the entire neighborhood.

Securing the crime scene -- and any other areas that might later turn out to be part of the crime scene -- is crucial.

A CSI really only gets one chance to perform a thorough, untainted search -- furniture will be moved, rain will wash away evidence, detectives will touch things in subsequent searches, and evidence will be corrupted.

Usually, the first police officers on the scene secure the core area -- the most obvious parts of the crime scene where most of the evidence is concentrated.

When the CSI arrives, he will block off an area larger than the core crime scene because it's easier to decrease the size of a crime scene than to increase it -- press vans and onlookers may be crunching through the area the CSI later determines is part of the crime scene.

Securing the scene involves creating a physical barrier using crime scene tape or other obstacles like police officers, police cars or sawhorses, and removing all unnecessary personnel from the scene.

A CSI might establish a "safe area" just beyond the crime scene where investigators can rest and discuss issues without worrying about destroying evidence.

Once the CSI defines the crime scene and makes sure it is secure, the next step is to get the district attorney involved, because if anyone could possibly have an expectation of privacy in any portion of the crime scene, the CSI needs search warrants.

The evidence a CSI recovers is of little value if it's not admissible in court. A good CSI errs on the side of caution and seldom searches a scene without a warrant.

With a search warrant on the books, the CSI begins a walk-through of the crime scene. He follows a pre-determined path that is likely to contain the least amount of evidence that would be destroyed by walking through it.

During this initial walk-through, he takes immediate note of details that will change with time : What's the weather like? What time of day of day is it?

He describes any notable smells gas? Is there a chair pushed up against a door? Is the bed missing pillows?

This is also the time to identify any potential hazards , like a gas leak or an agitated dog guarding the body, and address those immediately.

The CSI calls in any specialists or additional tools he thinks he'll need based on particular types of evidence he sees during the recognition stage.

A t-shirt stuck in a tree in the victim's front yard may require the delivery of a scissor lift to the scene. Evidence such as blood spatter on the ceiling or maggot activity on the corpse requires specialists to analyze it at the scene.

It's hard to deliver a section of the ceiling to the lab for blood spatter analysis, and maggot activity changes with each passing minute.

Clayton happens to be an expert in blood spatter analysis, so he would perform this task in addition to his role as crime scene investigator.

During this time, the CSI talks to the first responders to see if they touched anything and gather any additional information that might be helpful in determining a plan of attack.

If detectives on the scene have begun witness interviews, they may offer details that point the CSI to a particular room of the house or type of evidence.

Was the victim yelling at someone on the phone a half-hour before the police arrived? If so, the Caller ID unit is a good piece of evidence.

If an upstairs neighbor heard a struggle and then the sound of water running, this could indicate a clean-up attempt, and the CSI knows to look for signs of blood in the bathroom or kitchen.

Most CSIs, including Mr. Clayton, do not talk to witnesses. Clayton is a crime scene investigator and a forensic scientist -- he has no training in proper interview techniques.

Clayton deals with the physical evidence alone and turns to the detectives on the scene for any useful witness accounts. The CSI uses the information he gathers during scene recognition to develop a logical approach to this particular crime scene.

There is no cookie-cutter approach to crime scene investigation. As Mr. Clayton explains, the approach to a crime scene involving 13 deaths in a high school Mr.

Clayton was one of the CSIs who processed Columbine High School after the shootings there and the approach to a crime scene involving a person who was raped in a car are vastly different.

Once the CSI has formed a plan of attack to gather all of the evidence that could be relevant to this particular crime, the next step is to fully document every aspect of the scene in a way that makes it possible for people who weren't there to reconstruct it.

This is the scene-documentation stage. Police officers are typically the first to arrive at a crime scene. They arrest the perpetrator if he's still there and call for an ambulance if necessary.

They are responsible for securing the scene so no evidence is destroyed. The CSI unit documents the crime scene in detail and collects any physical evidence.

The district attorney is often present to help determine if the investigators require any search warrants to proceed and obtain those warrants from a judge.

The medical examiner if a homicide may or may not be present to determine a preliminary cause of death. Specialists entomologists, forensic scientists, forensic psychologists may be called in if the evidence requires expert analysis.

Detectives interview witnesses and consult with the CSI unit. They investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence.

The CSI uses digital and film cameras , different types of film , various lenses, flashes , filters, a tripod, a sketchpad, graph paper, pens and pencils, measuring tape, rulers and a notepad at this stage of the investigation.

He may also use a camcorder and a camera boom. Scene documentation occurs during a second walk-through of the scene following the same path as the initial walk-through.

If there is more than one CSI on the scene Mr. Clayton has been the sole CSI on a scene; he has also been one of dozens , one CSI will take photos, one will create sketches, one will take detailed notes and another might perform a video walk-through.

If there is only one CSI, all of these jobs are his. Note-taking at a crime scene is not as straightforward as it may seem. A CSI's training includes the art of scientific observation.

Whereas a layperson may see a large, brownish-red stain on the carpet, spreading outward from the corpse, and write down "blood spreading outward from underside of corpse," a CSI would write down "large, brownish-red fluid spreading outward from underside of corpse.

Clayton explains that in crime scene investigation, opinions don't matter and assumptions are harmful. When describing a crime scene, a CSI makes factual observations without drawing any conclusions.

CSIs take pictures of everything before touching or moving a single piece of evidence. The medical examiner will not touch the corpse until the CSI is done photographing it and the surrounding area.

There are three types of photographs a CSI takes to document the crime scene: overviews, mid-views, and close-ups.

Overview shots are the widest possible views of the entire scene. If the scene is indoors, this includes:.

These last shots might identity a possible witness or even a suspect. Sometimes, criminals do actually return to the scene of the crime this is particularly true in arson cases.

Mid-range photos come next. These shots show key pieces of evidence in context, so the photo includes not only the evidence but also its location in a room and its distance from other pieces of evidence.

Finally, the CSI takes close-ups of individual pieces of evidence, showing any serial numbers or other identifying characteristics.

For these pictures, the CSI uses a tripod and professional lighting techniques to achieve the best possible detail and clarity -- these photos in particular will provide the forensics lab with views to assist in analyzing the evidence.

The CSI also takes a second set of close-up shots that includes a ruler for scale. Every photo the CSI takes makes it into the photo log.

This log documents the details of every photo, including the photograph number, a description of the object or scene in the photograph, the location of the object or scene, the time and date the photograph was taken and any other descriptive details that might be relevant.

Without a good photo log, the pictures of the scene lose a lot of their value. In the investigation of John F. Kennedy's assassination, the FBI photographers who attended the autopsy didn't create descriptions of the pictures they were taking, and investigators were later unable to distinguish between entrance and exit wounds in the photos.

In addition to creating a photographic record of the scene, CSIs also create sketches to depict both the entire scene, which is easier to do in a sketch than in a photograph because a sketch can span several rooms, and particular aspects of the scene that will benefit from exact measurements.

The goal is to show locations of evidence and how each piece of evidence relates to rest of scene. The sketch artist may indicate details like the height of a door frame, the exact size of the room, the distance from the window to the door and the diameter of the hole in the wall above the victim's body.

Scene documentation may also include a video walk-through, especially in major cases involving serial killers or multiple homicides.

A video recording can offer a better feel for the layout of the crime scene -- how long it takes to get from one room to another and how many turns are involved, for instance.

Also, once the investigation is further along, it may reveal something that was overlooked at the scene because the investigators didn't know to look for it.

During a video walk-through, the CSI captures the entire crime scene and surrounding areas from every angle and provides a constant audio narrative.

After the CSI has created a full record of the crime scene exactly as it was when he arrived, it's time to collect the evidence.

Now he starts touching things. Crime scene investigators do not clean up the scene -- neither do police officers, detectives or anyone else involved in the investigation.

The task of cleaning up a gruesome crime scene often falls to the victim's family members. In the last 10 years, however, some people have recognized the need for hired crime-scene cleaners to take care of the job so family members and landlords don't have to, and some of these people have formed companies dedicated to the task.

It's a dirty, sometimes hazardous, very high-paying job. Cleaning up a meth lab is especially expensive because of the risk to anyone who enters the scene and the amount of work involved in making the area habitable again.

Evidence can come in any form. Some typical kinds of evidence a CSI might find at a crime scene include:. With theories of the crime in mind, CSIs begin the systematic search for incriminating evidence, taking meticulous notes along the way.

If there is a dead body at the scene, the search probably starts there. A CSI might collect evidence from the body at the crime scene or he might wait until the body arrives at the morgue.

In either case, the CSI does at least a visual examination of the body and surrounding area at the scene, taking pictures and detailed notes.

After moving the body, he performs the same examination of the other side of the victim. At this point, he may also take the body temperature and the ambient room temperature to assist in determining an estimated time of death although most forensic scientists say that time of death determinations are extremely unreliable -- the human body is unpredictable and there are too many variables involved.

He will also take fingerprints of the deceased either at the scene or at the ME's office. Once the CSI is done documenting the conditions of body and the immediately surrounding area, technicians wrap the body in a white cloth and put paper bags over the hands and feet for transportation to the morgue for an autopsy.

These precautions are for the purpose of preserving any trace evidence on the victim. There are several search patterns available for a CSI to choose from to assure complete coverage and the most efficient use of resources.

The inward spiral search: The CSI starts at the perimeter of the scene and works toward the center. Spiral patterns are a good method to use when there is only one CSI at the scene.

The outward spiral search: The CSI starts at the center of scene or at the body and works outward.

The parallel search: All of the members of the CSI team form a line. They walk in a straight line, at the same speed, from one end of crime scene to the other.

The grid search: A grid search is simply two parallel searches, offset by 90 degrees, performed one after the other.

The zone search : In a zone search, the CSI in charge divides the crime scene into sectors, and each team member takes one sector.

Team members may then switch sectors and search again to ensure complete coverage. Each time the CSI collects an item, he must immediately preserve it, tag it and log it for the crime scene record.

Different types of evidence may be collected either at the scene or in lab depending on conditions and resources.

Clayton, for instance, never develops latent fingerprints at the scene. He always sends fingerprints to the lab for development in a controlled environment.

In the next section, we'll talk about collection methods for specific types of evidence. CSIs should remember to look up. Trace evidence might include gun-shot residue GSR , paint residue, chemicals, glass and illicit drugs.

To collect trace evidence, a CSI might use tweezers, plastic containers with lids, a filtered vacuum device and a knife. He will also have a biohazard kit on hand containing disposable latex gloves, booties, face mask and gown and a biohazard waste bag.

If the crime involves a gun, the CSI will collect clothing from the victim and anyone who may have been at the scene so the lab can test for GSR.

The CSI places all clothing in sealed paper bags for transport to the lab. If he finds any illicit drugs or unknown powders at the scene, he can collect them using a knife and then seal each sample in a separate, sterile container.

The lab can identify the substance, determine its purity and see what else is in the sample in trace amounts.

These tests might determine drug possession, drug tampering or whether the composition could have killed or incapacitated a victim.

Technicians discover a lot of the trace evidence for a crime in the lab when they shake out bedding, clothing, towels, couch cushions and other items found at the scene.

At the CBI Denver Crime Lab, technicians shake out the items in a sterile room, onto a large, white slab covered with paper.

The technicians then send any trace evidence they find to the appropriate department. In the Denver Crime Lab, things like soil, glass and paint stay in the trace-evidence lab, illicit drugs and unknown substances go to the chemistry lab, and hair goes to the DNA lab.

Body fluids found at a crime scene might include blood, semen, saliva, and vomit. To identify and collect these pieces of evidence, a CSI might use smear slides, a scalpel, tweezers, scissors, sterile cloth squares, a UV light, protective eyewear and luminol.

He'll also use a blood collection kit to get samples from any suspects or from a living victim to use for comparison.

If the victim is dead and there is blood on the body, the CSI collects a blood sample either by submitting a piece of clothing or by using a sterile cloth square and a small amount of distilled water to remove some blood from the body.

Blood or saliva collected from the body may belong to someone else, and the lab will perform DNA analysis so the sample can be used later to compare to blood or saliva taken from a suspect.

The CSI will also scrape the victim's nails for skin -- if there was a struggle, the suspect's skin and therefore DNA may be under the victim's nails.

If there is dried blood on any furniture at the scene, the CSI will try to send the entire piece of furniture to the lab.

A couch is not an uncommon piece of evidence to collect. If the blood is on something that can't reasonably go to the lab, like a wall or a bathtub, the CSI can collect it by scraping it into a sterile container using a scalpel.

The CSI may also use luminol and a portable UV light to reveal blood that has been washed off a surface. If there is blood at the scene, there may also be blood spatter patterns.

These patterns can reveal the type of weapon that was used -- for instance, a "cast-off pattern" is left when something like a baseball bat contacts a blood source and then swings back.

The droplets are large and often tear-drop shaped. This type of pattern can indicate multiple blows from a blunt object, because the first blow typically does not contact any blood.

A "high-energy pattern," on the other hand, is made up of many tiny droplets and may indicate a gun shot.

Blood spatter analysis can indicate which direction the blood came from and how many separate incidents created the pattern.

Analyzing a blood pattern involves studying the size and shape of the stain, the shape and size of the blood droplets and the concentration of the droplets within the pattern.

The CSI takes pictures of the pattern and may call in a blood-spatter specialist to analyze it. A CSI may use combs, tweezers, containers and a filtered vacuum device to collect any hair or fibers at the scene.

In a rape case with a live victim, the CSI accompanies the victim to the hospital to obtain any hairs or fibers found on the victim's body during the medical examination.

The CSI seals any hair or fiber evidence in separate containers for transport to the lab. A CSI might recover carpet fibers from a suspect's shoes.

The lab can compare these fibers to carpet fibers from the victim's home. Analysts can use hair DNA to identify or eliminate suspects by comparison.

The presence of hair on a tool or weapon can identify it as the weapon used in the crime. The crime lab can determine what type of animal the hair came from human?

Tools for recovering fingerprints include brushes, powders, tape, chemicals, lift cards, a magnifying glass and Super Glue.

A crime lab can use fingerprints to identify the victim or identify or rule out a suspect. There are several types of prints a CSI might find at a crime scene:.

A perpetrator might leave prints on porous or nonporous surfaces. Paper, unfinished wood and cardboard are porous surfaces that will hold a print, and glass, plastic and metal are nonporous surfaces.

A CSI will typically look for latent prints on surfaces the perpetrator is likely to have touched. For instance, if there are signs of forced entry on the front door, the outside door knob and door surface are logical places to look for prints.

Breathing on a surface or shining a very strong light on it might make a latent print temporarily visible.

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Crime Scene Investigation - 13 Seiten, Note: 1,0

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Crime Scene Investigation Video

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If a body was found indoors, for example, the crime scene primary area is the room where it was found. The secondary crime scene perimeter is the remainder of the house or building, along with all the doors, windows, and corridors that give access to the primary area, including front and back yards.

The secondary areas may contain important evidence of a fight, footwear prints, fingerprints, broken windows or doors, tire prints, or bloodstains.

All physical evidence identified in both areas may help in the reconstruction of the chain of events of the criminal act. The services of a forensic anthropologist are requested when highly decomposed or charred human remains are found, when difficulty in gathering physical evidence is experienced, or when the identification of the victim or the cause of death is not apparent.

A series of physical changes and interactions with soil bacteria, insects, and animals takes place when humans are buried, especially in mass graves.

In these cases, the anthropological analysis of hair, bones and soft tissues if available may reveal race, gender, stature, approximate age at the time of death and, often, the cause of death.

The conduction of. These scenes should also begin with securing of the scene by the police, in case a determination is later made that a crime was committed.

At least 10 yards around the spot where the remains are or are believed to be buried should be isolated.

The anthropological gathering of evidence will take at least a full day, and when the remains are buried, two days. Only after this phase is completed can the remains be removed from the site.

Forensic anthropology techniques may supply not only relevant physical evidence but also contextual information about the circumstances of the death, through the three-dimensional mapping and analysis of the scene, the location and interrelationship of physical evidence scattered around the remains, depth of the grave or pit, and geological characteristics of the soil.

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Science Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps Crime Scene Investigation. Crime Scene Investigation gale. Crime Scene Investigation Scene processing is the term applied to the series of steps taken to investigate a crime scene.

The conduction of evidence gathering in these cases is a different procedure, usually not familiar to most crime scene technicians, and involves archeological techniques, soil analysis, identification of buried debris, recognition of buried marks of hands or footwear, and animal evidence.

Sandra Galeotti. Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia. More From encyclopedia. It has its main applications in identification of corps… Training , Training As a rule, the training for a forensic scientist involves the attainment of at minimum, a bachelor's four year college or university degree….

Crime Scene Cleaning. Disturbed Evidence. Physical Evidence. Police: Criminal Investigations. Cross Contamination. Evidence, Chain of Custody.

Trace Evidence. Crime Rates. Crime Prevention, Intelligence Agencies. Crime of Crime Laboratories. Crime in the United States. Crime Films.

Crime Fighting. Sometimes videos are taken to ensure every detail of the crime is documented. These items are tagged, logged, and packaged to ensure nothing is damaged or lost.

All evidence from the scene is sent to the forensic laboratory for analysis. Once the results are in they go to the lead detective on the case.

Photographs of all evidence are taken before anything is touched, moved, or otherwise further investigated.

Evidence markers are placed next to each piece of evidence allowing for the organization of the evidence. Sketching the scene is also a form of documentation at a crime scene.

This allows for notes to be taken as well as to gauge distances and other information that may not be easily detected from only a photograph.

The investigators will draw out locations of evidence and all other objects in the room. The sketch is usually drawn from an above point of view.

Notes are taken by investigators to ensure the memorization of their thoughts and suspicions about different pieces of evidence.

Evidence comes in many different forms such as guns, blood on knives, etc. It can be anything from a biological sample like blood or everyday items like receipts or bank statements.

Other types of evidence include: fibers , firearm residue , photographs or videos, and fingerprints. Forensic scientists analyze this evidence so they can come up with an explanation for why and how a crime occurred.

Ensuring that evidence is collected in an accurate and timely manner helps officers to better understand what happened at the scene and aids in the investigation being completed successfully.

Only the appropriate personnel with the proper knowledge and training should be collecting evidence. These individuals include First Responders, Crime Scene Investigators, and other specialized personnel.

For instance, paper containers, such as bags, envelopes, or boxes, may be optimal for biological samples. Paper containers allow evidence that is not completely dry to continue drying.

When the evidence is collected properly there is less of a chance that the items collected will be damaged or contaminated.

The development of forensics has improved the level of crimes being solved. Whenever first responders respond to crime scenes they are with people of different expertise.

These people have different tools that allow them to collect evidence. There is trace evidence such as hairs, soil, fingerprints, footprints, shoe prints, gunpowder residue, glass fragments, carpet fibres, and similar items that are vital to crime scene processing.

Depending on the crime scene, determines what technicians will be needed to respond to the scene Forensics uses a variety of different tools and techniques.

DNA and other bodily fluids are collected and, whether it is hair or fluid, for further examination in a lab. Electronics are taken for examination by a technical expert to search for further evidence.

Documents from the area are also taken for further examination. Ammunition and weapons are taken for matching to wounds and ballistics.

Photographs of tool marks are taken because they can be matched to a weapon at a later time. Any other trace evidence is also collected.

Trace evidence is anything left behind by a perpetrator or could have been transferred to the perpetrator.

Interviews of both witnesses and victims of the crime are taken by law enforcement officials to gain knowledge and creating a timeline of events.

Chromatography is a science that separates mixtures to their original compound and allows for them to be identified.

This is useful when trying to determine whether someone died a natural death or was poisoned.

Depending on the evidence collected determines the procedure that will be used- thin layer, gas, or paper chromatography which are specific ways to separate compounds.

Fingerprints which also include palm prints and footprints are another type of evidence that can tie individuals to crime scenes. Collecting fingerprints is a crucial process and should be one of the first things conducted when investigators arrive at the crime scene.

If a print is not able to be lifted then photographs of the prints are acceptable. Fingernails should be collected and placed in a paper packet then placed in a paper envelope and labelled for processing.

After the evidence has been collected from the scene of the crime, it is placed in its appropriate container and then is labelled or tagged.

The chain of custody is pertinent to the investigation and guarantees the physical security of all evidence that is part of the case.

The following types of identifiers are needed to establish the chain: [6]. Different types of crime scenes include outdoors, indoor, and conveyance.

Outdoor crime scenes are the most difficult to investigate. The exposure to elements such as rain, wind, or heat, as well as animal activity, contaminates the crime scene and leads to the destruction of evidence.

Other factors such as not properly securing the crime scene can lead to contamination of evidence. If a crime were committed outdoors and indoors then the outdoor crime scene is the priority.

It is very difficult to process outdoor crime scenes at night. Regardless of the lighting used to enhance visibility, it is detrimental to the evidence.

This can cause for loss and destruction of evidence, therefore if at all possible it is best to preserve a crime scene for daylight processing.

The contamination here usually comes from the people factor. Conveyance crime scenes are crimes committed utilizing transportation, such as robbery or auto theft.

Each type of crime scene, along with the nature of the crime committed robbery, homicide, rape, etc.

When conveyance crime scenes are being investigated it is important to look beyond the conveyance itself. An example of this would be footprints or shoe impressions of someone fleeing a scene and the track of could leave evidence that the suspect pick up at the scene, such as soil, rocks, sand, etc.

Crime scene reconstruction is the use of scientific methods, physical evidence , deductive reasoning , and their interrelationships to gain explicit knowledge of the series of events that surround the commission of a crime.

Crime scene reconstruction helps aid in the arrest of suspects and prosecute in the court of law. Crime scene reconstruction is more than a crime scene reenactment it involves more of a comprehensive approach and dedicated to finding a final resolution.

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